1927 -- Welcome to the American Doll-Messengers, Committee on International Friendship Among Children in Japan, Tokyo, Japan

This small paperbound book was written as a thank-you to Americans for the gift of the "Blue-eyed" dolls, even before the doll ambassadors were sent in return to America. It begins with a description of modern Japan and brief history of the opening of Japan to the outside world, then describes in detail the various receptions and ceremonies that were held to welcome the American dolls to Japan. There is a section on Hina Matsuri, and a brief discussion of the plan to send doll-messengers from Japan to America before Christmas that year. It includes photographs of senic locations in Japan, doll receptions, cities where the dolls went, and doll exhibits.

1929 -- "Miss Aomori, Japanese Doll, Comes To Rest At Last In City's Museum," Times Union, January 25, Rochester, NY.

This Rochester newspaper article announcing the arrival of Miss Aomori [sic] in Rochester is reproduced on this web site by permission of The Democrat and Chronicle Newspaper.

1929 -- "Friendship Doll" in Museum Service, Vol. 4 No. 2, February 25, p. 15, Rochester Municipal Museum, Rochester, NY.

This notice in the Rochester Municipal Museum (precursor to the Rochester Museum & Science Center)'s own monthly publication announcing the arrival of a Friendship Doll in Rochester is reproduced on this web site.

2000 -- "Reunion with 'Blue-eyed Doll' - Giver's Grandson Visits From America" in Kyoto Shimbun, June 26, 2000.

This newspaper article from Kyoto, Japan, describes a return visit to Japan by Sidney Lewis Gulick III and his wife, and their continuing gifts of friendship dolls. An english translation is available on the web at

The Committee on World Friendship Among Children
1929 -- Dolls of Friendship, Friendship Press, New York.

This book tells the story of the first friendship doll exchange. Details of the preparations, farewell parties, and receptions are given, as well as many illustrations of the dolls in their initial travels. Excerpts from the letters and speeches that accompanied and welcomed the dolls are included as well as eye-witnmess accounts of the festivities.

Gulick, Sidney L.
1935 -- Toward Understanding Japan: Constructive Proposals for Removing the Menace of War, The MacMillan Company, New York.

This volume by Dr. Gulick does not mention the Friendship Dolls program directly, but it provides a contemporary analysis of the relationship between America and Japan up until 1935. Dr. Gulick's analysis of the situation provides a context for understanding both his concern for the state of the relationship between America and Japan, and his motivations for initiating the Friendship Doll exchange.

Hiener, Terry
1987 -- "Miss Kochi: A Prized Doll Captures the Spirit of Japan," Carnegie Magazine, July/Aug., pp. 12-18.

This is a good overview of the Friendship Doll program, concentrating on the ambassador dolls and the events surrounding their arrival. Miss Kochi, who is in the collection of the Carnegie Museum, is featured and her story since arriving in Pittsburgh is told. Other items in the museum's collection that came along with Miss Kochi are also illustrated. Finally, there are good discussions of dolls in Japanese culture and of Hina Matsuri, the traditional doll festival in Japan.

King, Gail
1996 -- "Single, 69, and a Real Doll" in The Wall Street Journal, Dec. 23, 1996.

This article has a brief overview of the Friendship Doll exchanges, and concentrates on the story of Miss Toyama, since her arrival in Louisville, Kentucky.

Mukogawa Fort Wright Institute
2000 -- "Takaoka Receives Japanese National Diplomacy Commendation," Cultural Center News, Volume XI Number 1, September and October.

Nishimura, Kunio
1995 -- "The Friendship Dolls," Look Japan, July, pp. 30-33.

This article, available on the web at, gives some of the background of Dr. Gulick, and his motivations for the friendship doll program. There is a discussion of the ambassador dolls themselves, and their manufacture and outfitting. Finally, the article speaks of the results of the original doll exchange, and of other doll exchanges that have occurred since.

Reynolds, Valrae
1983 -- "The Story of Miss Osaka at the Newark Museum" reprinted from The Japan Society Newsletter, Sept. 1983

This article was written by the Curator of Oriental Collections at the Newark Museum, where Miss Osaki is kept. In addition to an extended discussion of the Friendship Dolls echange, including descriptions of ceremonies and receptions for both the "blue-eyed" dolls and the dolls Ambassadors, details of the construction, clothing, and accessories of the doll ambassadors are addressed. Miss Osaka's story since her arrival in America is also told and her steamship ticket and some of her accompanying furniture and acessories are illustrated.

Van Voorhees, Robert
1998 -- "Japanese American Friendship Dolls," Upstate Living, November/December.

This article is a brief, one-page overview of the Friendship Doll exchanges, and it does not include any details about Miss Nagasaki. However, it does include a nice color picture of her, identified at the time as Miss Aomori.

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